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Voortrekker Monument Cenotaph in pretoria

Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive (administrative) and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. Pretoria is sometimes regarded as being divided into three sections: west, east and north, relative to the central business district. Pretoria is contained within the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality as one of several constituent former administrations (among which also Centurion and Soshanguve). Pretoria itself is sometimes referred to as "Tshwane" due to a long-running and controversial proposed change of name, which has, as of 2014, yet to be decided.

Voortrekker Monument North Roof in pretoria

The Voortrekker Monument is located just south of Pretoria in South Africa. This massive granite structure is prominently located on a hilltop, and was raised to commemorate the Voortrekkers who left the Cape Colony between 1835 and 1854.

On 8 July 2011 the Voortrekker Monument, designed by the architect Gerard Moerdijk, was declared a National Heritage Site by the South African Heritage Resource Agency

Voortrekker Monument, Pretoria in pretoria

The idea to build a monument in honour of the Voortrekkers was first discussed on 16 December 1888, when President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic attended the Day of the Covenant celebrations at Blood River in Natal. However, the movement to actually build such a monument only started in 1931 when the Sentrale Volksmonumentekomitee (SVK) (Central People's Monuments Committee) was formed to bring this idea to fruition.
Construction started on 13 July 1937 with a sod turning ceremony performed by chairman of the SVK, Advocate Ernest George Jansen, on what later became known as Monument Hill. On 16 December 1938 the cornerstone was laid by three descendants of some of the Voortrekker leaders: Mrs. J.C. Muller (granddaughter of Andries Pretorius), Mrs. K.F. Ackerman (great-granddaughter of Hendrik Potgieter) and Mrs. J.C. Preller (great-granddaughter of Piet Retief).The Monument was inaugurated on 16 December 1949 by the then-prime minister D. F. Malan.The total construction cost of the Monument was about £ 360,000, most of which was contributed by the South African government.A large amphitheatre, which seats approximately 20,000 people, was erected to the north-east of the Monument in 1949.

Union Buildings sunset in pretoria

Union Buildings Statue in pretoria

View from Lion’s Head in greater-cape-town


Elephants at Hapoor Dam in Addo Elephant Park in south-africa

Kalk Bay Harbour in greater-cape-town
Cape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa, after Johannesburg,and the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape. As the seat of the National Parliament, it is also the legislative capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape floral kingdom, as well as for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point.

Cityscape in greater-cape-town
Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was first developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Today it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa

Signal Hill ,Cape Town - South Africa Travel Channel in greater-cape-town
Germany officially the Federal Republic of Germanyin western-central Europe consisting of 16 constituent states, which retain limited sovereignty. Its capital city and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 80.6 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state in the European Union. Germany is a major economic and political power of the European continent and a historic leader in many cultural, theoretical and technical fields.

Maintower in frankfurt-germany
Frankfurt am Main .Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a population of 687,775 (2012) within its administrative boundaries.The actual urban area has a population of 2,500,000.The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region which has a population of 5,600,000 and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km (25 mi) east of Frankfurt.


Frankfurt Skyline Nacht in frankfurt-germany
Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe and ranks among the world's leading financial centres. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks. The European Central Bank is the central bank of the eurozone, consisting of 18 EU member states that have adopted the euro (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender. The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for over 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including the headquarters of the major German banks, notably Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank, DZ Bank and KfW, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks
Berlin Europa Center in berlin-germany
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million people,Berlin is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union, and is Germany's largest city.Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4.5 million residents from over 180 nations.Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes

Pariser Platz with Brandenburger Tor in berlin-germany
First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–33) and the Third Reich (1933–45).Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world.After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided—into East Berlin—capital of the German Democratic Republic, colloquially identified in English as East Germany—and West Berlin, a political exclave (surrounded by the Berlin Wall from 1961 to 1989) and a de facto state of the Federal Republic of Germany, known colloquially in English as West Germany from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.

Fernsehturm in Berlin in berlin-germany

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science, hosting 147 foreign embassies. Its economy is primarily based on high-tech industries and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues. Berlin also serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport  and is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include , pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, electronics, traffic engineering, and renewable energy.

Berlin is home to renowned universities, research institutes, orchestras, museums, and celebrities and is host to many sporting events.Its urban setting and historical legacy have made it a popular location for international film productions. The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, public transportation networks, and an extremely high quality of living

Fischmarkt in Limburg a. d. Lahn in germany
Limburg an der Lahn (officially abbreviated Limburg a. d. Lahn) is the district seat of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse, Germany.Limburg lies in western Hesse between the Taunus and the Westerwald on the river Lahn.The town lies roughly centrally in a basin within the Rhenish Slate Mountains which is surrounded by the low ranges of the Taunus and Westerwald and called the Limburg Basin (Limburger Becken). Owing to the favourable soil and climate, the Limburg Basin stands as one of Hesse's richest agricultural regions and moreover, with its convenient Lahn crossing, it has been of great importance to transport since the Middle Ages. Within the basin, the Lahn's otherwise rather narrow lower valley broadens out noticeably, making Limburg's mean elevation only 117 m above sea level.

Plötze mit Raubritter von Hattstein in Limburg a. d. Lahn in germany

Nordwestansicht des Limburger Doms in germany

Limburger Dom 1 in germany

Ausblick links vom Dom in germany

About 800, the first castle buildings arose on the Limburg crags. This was probably designed for the protection of a ford over the river Lahn. In the decades that followed, the town developed under the castle's protection. Limburg is first mentioned in documents in 910 under the name of Lintpurc when Louis the Child granted Konrad Kurzbold an estate in the community on which he was to build a church. Konrad Kurzbold laid the foundation stone for Saint George's Monastery Church, where he was also buried. The community soon increased in importance with the monastery's founding and profited from the lively goods trade on the Via Publica.In 1150, a wooden bridge was built across the Lahn. The long-distance road from Cologne to Frankfurt am Main subsequently ran through Limburg. In the early 13th century, Limburg Castle was built in its current form. Shortly afterwards, the town passed into the ownership of the Lords of Ysenburg. In 1214, the community was granted town rights. Remains of the fortification wall from the years 1130, 1230 and 1340 with a maxiumum length of roughly one thousand metres indicate to this day the blossoming town's quick development in the Middle Ages. There is proof of a mint in Limburg in 1180.

Limburg an der Lahn Altstadt 1 in germany


Limburg Lahnbrücke in germany


in germany
Runkel Castle ( German: Burg Runkel ), a ruined hill castle from the High Middle Ages, is located in the city of Runkel in the Landkreis ( District of ) Limburg-Weilburg in the state of Hesse, Germany.Nestled in the valley of the Lahn River, the town and castle are, in a straight line, 3.75 mi (6.04 km) east of Limburg an der Lahn, 18.6 mi (29.9 km) southwest of Wetzlar and 37 mi (60 km) northwest of Frankfurt am Main. The hill fort is situated at 492 ft (150 m) above sea level and rises about 115 ft (35 m) to 131 ft (40 m) above the valley of the Lahn.

Runkel Castle - View of the city 2014 in germany

As the hill had already attracted the attention of the Celts, it is probable they gave it its name: “Run – kall”, the Celtic word for “rock mountain”. In 1159, a Sigfridus de Runkel was mentioned in the documents but the castle was built a little earlier by a man with the same name, probably on the orders of the Holy Roman Emperor, perhaps Frederick Barbarossa, to protect the strategic pass between Weilburg and the southern side of the region. At the time of the castle was built, there was just a ferry. The bridge was not built until the Late Middle Ages.

Around 1250, a dispute over the sales and inheritance of the properties arose between Siegfried V von Runkle and his cousin, Heinrich (died 1288). In 1276, as a result of their quarrel, the cousin was driven from the castle. He went to the other side of the Lahn River, where he built the Schadeck Castle as Trutzburg and created the Westerberg line. Dietrich III von Runkel enlarged his Herrschaft in 1376 to the Zehnten ( tithing districts ) of Schupbach and Aumenau and built a more modern castle next to the original building. Dietrich IV (died after 1462), by marrying Anastasia the Wied-Isenburg heiress, gained the Grafschaft (County of) Wied, started the Wied – Runkel line and increased his influence in his region. In 1440, the building of the stone bridge over the Lahn River was commissioned but, because of a dispute over the proceeds from the duties and tolls, it was not finished until 1448. In 1543 Philipp Melanchthon, the Protestant reformer, visited the castle as the guest of Count Johann IV von Wied-Runkel (died 1581), the nephew of the

Runkel Castle View from the Wall 2014 in germany










































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